May
1753
Fort Presque Isle (Erie, PA) is constructed by the French who then build a road south to a new post at LeBoeuf (present-day Waterford, PA).
July
1753
Fort LeBoeuf built by French at present-day Waterford, PA.
Fall
1753
The French seize Scots trader, John Fraser's cabin at the confluence of French Creek and the Allegheny River, and establish a presence there. Eventual site of Fort Machault.
October
1753
George Washington is commissioned by Lt. Gov. Dinwiddie.
October 31
1753
George Washington leaves Williamsburg, carrying a letter from Gov. Dinwiddie to the French, ordering them to vacate the British territory.
November 14
1753
Christopher Gist joins George Washington at Wills Creek (Cumberland, MD).
November 22
1753
George Washington, after standing at the point where the Ohio River begins in Pittsburgh, writes in his journal…."As I got down before the Canoe, I spent some Time in viewing the Rivers, & the Land in the Fork, which I think extreamly well situated for a Fort; as it has the absolute Command of both Rivers."
November 24
1753
George Washington's arrival at Logstown to obtain information about location of French forts.
November 30
1753
George Washington and Christopher Gist leave Logstown for Fort Venango, accompanied by Half-King and "two old men and one young warrior."
December 4
1753
George Washington arrives in present-day Franklin and attempts to deliver the letter to the French. They instruct him he needs to travel further north to Fort LeBoeuf.
December 6 or 7
1753
George Washington
leaves for Ft. LeBoeuf.
December 11
1753
George Washington arrives at Ft. LeBoeuf.
December 16
1753
George Washington leaves Fort LeBoeuf to begin his journey back to Williamsburg.
December 27
1753
George Washington is shot at by Indians near "Murthering Town", but escapes harm.
December 29
1753
George Washington & Christopher Gist, in trying to cross the Allegheny River near Shannopin's Town, fall off the raft and nearly drown. They spend the night on an island and finish crossing the river on the frozen ice the next day.
January 16
1754
George Washington arrives in Williamsburg and delivers the French commandant's reply to Governor Dinwiddie, thus setting the stage for the French and Indian War.
April 18
1754
British Fort Prince George is surrendered to the French at the Point (present-day Pittsburgh); The French now control the Forks of the Ohio and immediately begin the construction of Fort Duquesne.
May 28
1754
George Washington led 40 men from an encampment near present-day Uniontown to an Indian camp where 10 or 11 warriors joined them. They set off to investigate reports of a French camp a few miles away. Not long after dawn, the two forces exchanged fire, leaving four Virginians and fourteen Frenchmen dead or wounded. The French commander, Ensign Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville, was killed.
May 30
1754
George Washington builds Ft. Necessity.
July 3
1754
The French and the Indians attacked Washington’s troops who had built a "fort of necessity", killing or wounding one-third of Washington's men after a day of constant firing in heavy rain. Washington surrendered, and on July 4 was allowed to retreat.
July 9
1755
Following Washington’s surrender at Fort Necessity, the British government sent Major General Edward Braddock and a force of 1300 British regular and colonial militia to Fort Duquesne. On July 9, 1755, after a double fording of the Monongahela River to the site of present-day Braddock (near Pittsburgh), they encountered about 900 French and Indian troops. In the ensuing three-hour firefight, Braddock’s command suffered more than 1000 casualties before the survivors fled.
July 13
1755
General Braddock, mortally wounded, dies near Jumonville Glen, and his body is buried under the road so that it cannot be found. Braddock's defeat unleashes two years of attacks by the Indians, and effectively rolls the Pennsylvania frontier back to Carlisle, barely 100 miles from Philadelphia.
May
1756
French General Montcalm (mon-kahlm) arrives in Quebec. He does not like depending on American Indian allies and over time he changes the way the French fight the war.
May 17
1756
The British formally declare war on the French. Fighting spreads to the West Indies, India and Europe.
July
1756
British Fort Granville (near Lewistown, Mifflin County, PA) is destroyed by the Delaware war chief Captain Jacobs.
July 23
1756
British Lord Loudoun arrives in New York. He threatens the colonies and treats them badly. They do not like his behavior and resist helping him. This hurts the British war effort.
August 14
1756
The French capture the British Fort Oswego and take control of Lake Ontario.
September 9
1756
Pennsylvania Colonel John Armstrong embarks on a secret, retaliatory surprise attack against the Indians, attacking and destroying the village of Kittanning. An explosion kills Captain Jacobs and his family and liberates 24 prisoners.
March 10
1757
A letter arrives from British Secretary of State William Pitt, changing the policies of Lord Loudoun. Now the colonies are very supportive of the war.
August 9–10
1757
The French capture Fort William Henry. However, they do not talk with their American Indian allies about the surrender. The surrender agreement angers the American Indians and the next day they captured or killed hundreds of British.
July 8
1758
Despite having many more troops, the British did not take Fort Ticonderoga.
June 8–July 26
1758
The British capture the fortress at Louisbourg. This opens the St. Lawrence River and the water route to Canada.
August 25–27
1758
The British capture Fort Frontenac. This fort supplied all the French forts in the Ohio River Valley and further west.
September 3
1758
Forbes' men construct Fort Ligonier, the jumping-off point for the last stage of Forbes' march.
October 8–26
1758
The Ohio River Valley American Indians sign the Treaty of Easton promising not to fight for the French. In return the British promise not to settle the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains after the war.
October 12
1758
With supplies and native allies dwindling, Fort Duquesne commander Francois-Marie le Marchand, Sieur de Ligneris, launches a desperate raid to destroy Fort Ligonier. In the ensuing three-hour battle, Pennsylvania Colonel James Burd loses dozens of men but successfully defends the fort.
November
1758
Encouraged by reports that the French garrison at Fort Duquesne is shrinking and that their allies, the Delaware Indians, are prepared to abandon the French and make peace, Brigadier General John Forbes decides to mount an early assault.
November 23
1758
As the British forces march towards Fort Duquesne, the French set fire to the fort, blow up its walls, and they retreat to the Allegheny River. The British seize control of the Forks and the area is named Pittsburgh.
Spring
1759
The British begin construction of Fort Pitt.
July
1759
The Iroquois decide to ally with the British and help them defeat the French at Fort Niagara.
July 10–25
1759
The French surrender Fort Niagara to the British after a long fight.
July 26
1759
The French army retreats and the British capture Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point.
September 13
1759
The French surrender the city of Quebec after the British defeat them in an early morning battle just outside the city.
September 8
1760
The British capture Montreal. Fighting ends between the French and the British in North America. The British and French are still fighting in other parts of the world.
Fall
1761
Jeffery Amherst changes the trading practices with the American Indians. The new rules cause the American Indians to suffer great hardship.
June 8–August 13
1762
The British capture the Spanish city of Havana, Cuba and bring another European power into the war.
February 10
1763
The Spanish, French and British sign a peace treaty, the Treaty of Paris. Much of North America changes hands.
April 27
1763
Pontiac holds a council and plans to attack Fort Detroit. He unites manyAmerican Indian nations in an effort to drive British soldiers off their land.
May 9
1763
Pontiac and his warriors attack Fort Detroit.
May 16–June 21
1763
The American Indians attack and burn eight British forts and settlements. Both Fort Pitt and Fort Detroit are surrounded without help or supplies.
August 5–6
1763
Col. Henry Bouquet (boo-kay) attempts to relieve Fort Pitt. On August 5, near Bushy Run, American Indians attack. The next day Bouquet tricks the American Indians and drives them off.
October 7
1763
In an effort to stop all the American Indian fighting, King George III signs the Proclamation of 1763, which requires British colonists to live east of the Allegheny Mountains.
Fall
1765
The British change their policy regarding trade with the American Indians, which the American Indians find agreeable. The American Indians make peace with the British and end Pontiac’s War.