Fort Presque Isle (Erie, PA) is constructed
by the French who then build a road south
to a new post at LeBoeuf (present-day
Fort LeBoeuf built by
French at present-day
The French seize Scots trader, John Fraser's
cabin at the confluence of French Creek and
the Allegheny River, and establish a presence
there. Eventual site of Fort Machault.
is commissioned by
Lt. Gov. Dinwiddie.
George Washington leaves Williamsburg,
carrying a letter from Gov. Dinwiddie to
the French, ordering them to vacate the
Christopher Gist joins
George Washington at
Wills Creek (Cumberland, MD).
George Washington, after standing at the point where the Ohio River begins in Pittsburgh,
writes in his journal…."As I got down before the Canoe, I spent some Time in viewing
the Rivers, & the Land in the Fork, which I think extreamly well situated for a Fort; as it has
the absolute Command of both Rivers."
George Washington's arrival at
Logstown to obtain information
about location of French forts.
George Washington and Christopher Gist
leave Logstown for Fort Venango,
accompanied by Half-King and "two old
men and one young warrior."
George Washington arrives in present-day Franklin
and attempts to deliver the letter to the French.
They instruct him he needs to travel further north
to Fort LeBoeuf.
December 6 or 7
leaves for Ft. LeBoeuf.
George Washington arrives at Ft. LeBoeuf.
George Washington leaves
Fort LeBoeuf to begin his
journey back to Williamsburg.
George Washington is
shot at by Indians near
but escapes harm.
George Washington & Christopher Gist, in trying to cross
the Allegheny River near Shannopin's Town, fall off the raft
and nearly drown. They spend the night on an island and finish
crossing the river on the frozen ice the next day.
George Washington arrives in Williamsburg and delivers
the French commandant's reply to Governor Dinwiddie,
thus setting the stage for the French and Indian War.
British Fort Prince George is surrendered to the French
at the Point (present-day Pittsburgh); The French now
control the Forks of the Ohio and immediately begin
the construction of Fort Duquesne.
George Washington led 40 men from an encampment near present-day Uniontown to an Indian camp
where 10 or 11 warriors joined them. They set off to investigate reports of a French camp a few miles away.
Not long after dawn, the two forces exchanged fire, leaving four Virginians and fourteen Frenchmen dead or
wounded. The French commander, Ensign Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville, was killed.
builds Ft. Necessity.
The French and the Indians attacked Washington’s troops who had built
a "fort of necessity", killing or wounding one-third of Washington's men
after a day of constant firing in heavy rain. Washington surrendered,
and on July 4 was allowed to retreat.
Following Washington’s surrender at Fort Necessity, the British government sent Major General Edward Braddock and
a force of 1300 British regular and colonial militia to Fort Duquesne. On July 9, 1755, after a double fording of the
Monongahela River to the site of present-day Braddock (near Pittsburgh), they encountered about 900 French and Indian
troops. In the ensuing three-hour firefight, Braddock’s command suffered more than 1000 casualties before the survivors fled.
General Braddock, mortally wounded, dies near Jumonville Glen, and his body
is buried under the road so that it cannot be found. Braddock's defeat unleashes
two years of attacks by the Indians, and effectively rolls the Pennsylvania frontier
back to Carlisle, barely 100 miles from Philadelphia.
French General Montcalm (mon-kahlm) arrives in Quebec.
He does not like depending on American Indian allies
and over time he changes the way the French fight the war.
The British formally declare war
on the French. Fighting spreads
to the West Indies, India and Europe.
British Fort Granville (near Lewistown,
Mifflin County, PA) is destroyed by the
Delaware war chief Captain Jacobs.
British Lord Loudoun arrives in New York.
He threatens the colonies and treats them badly.
They do not like his behavior and resist helping him.
This hurts the British war effort.
The French capture the British
Fort Oswego and take control
of Lake Ontario.
Pennsylvania Colonel John Armstrong embarks on a secret,
retaliatory surprise attack against the Indians, attacking and
destroying the village of Kittanning. An explosion kills
Captain Jacobs and his family and liberates 24 prisoners.
A letter arrives from British Secretary
of State William Pitt, changing the policies
of Lord Loudoun. Now the colonies are
very supportive of the war.
The French capture Fort William Henry. However, they do not talk
with their American Indian allies about the surrender. The surrender
agreement angers the American Indians and the next day they
captured or killed hundreds of British.
Despite having many
more troops, the British
did not take Fort Ticonderoga.
June 8July 26
The British capture the fortress at Louisbourg.
This opens the St. Lawrence River and the
water route to Canada.
The British capture Fort Frontenac.
This fort supplied all the French forts
in the Ohio River Valley and further west.
Forbes' men construct Fort Ligonier,
the jumping-off point for the last
stage of Forbes' march.
The Ohio River Valley American Indians sign the Treaty of Easton
promising not to fight for the French. In return the British promise
not to settle the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains after the war.
With supplies and native allies dwindling, Fort Duquesne commander Francois-Marie le Marchand,
Sieur de Ligneris, launches a desperate raid to destroy Fort Ligonier. In the ensuing three-hour battle,
Pennsylvania Colonel James Burd loses dozens of men but successfully defends the fort.
Encouraged by reports that the French garrison at Fort Duquesne
is shrinking and that their allies, the Delaware Indians, are prepared
to abandon the French and make peace, Brigadier General John Forbes
decides to mount an early assault.
As the British forces march towards Fort Duquesne, the French set fire
to the fort, blow up its walls, and they retreat to the Allegheny River.
The British seize control of the Forks and the area is named Pittsburgh.
The British begin
construction of Fort Pitt.
The Iroquois decide to ally with
the British and help them defeat
the French at Fort Niagara.
The French surrender
Fort Niagara to the
British after a long fight.
The French army retreats and the
British capture Fort Ticonderoga
and Crown Point.
The French surrender the city
of Quebec after the British defeat
them in an early morning battle
just outside the city.
The British capture Montreal. Fighting ends
between the French and the British in
North America. The British and French are
still fighting in other parts of the world.
Jeffery Amherst changes the trading
practices with the American Indians.
The new rules cause the American
Indians to suffer great hardship.
June 8August 13
The British capture the Spanish city
of Havana, Cuba and bring another
European power into the war.
The Spanish, French and British sign
a peace treaty, the Treaty of Paris.
Much of North America changes hands.
Pontiac holds a council and plans to attack
Fort Detroit. He unites manyAmerican Indian
nations in an effort to drive British soldiers
off their land.
Pontiac and his warriors
attack Fort Detroit.
May 16June 21
The American Indians attack and burn eight
British forts and settlements. Both Fort Pitt
and Fort Detroit are surrounded without
help or supplies.
Col. Henry Bouquet (boo-kay) attempts to relieve Fort Pitt.
On August 5, near Bushy Run, American Indians attack.
The next day Bouquet tricks the American Indians and
drives them off.
In an effort to stop all the American Indian fighting,
King George III signs the Proclamation of 1763,
which requires British colonists to live east of the
The British change their policy regarding trade with
the American Indians, which the American Indians
find agreeable. The American Indians make peace
with the British and end Pontiac’s War.